Since the dawn of civilization, people have tried to understand the causes of abnormal behavior. In the middle ages, for example, people with unusual behavior were seen as controlled by evil beings. Now a day’s many researchers adopted the Biopsychosocial model of abnormal behavior.
The biopsychosocial model of abnormal behavior
According to the Biopsychosocial model of abnormal behavior, abnormal behavior is seen as caused by the combination and interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. These factors contribute in varying degrees to particular abnormal behavior in particular people. Let us discuss the biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural factors of abnormal behavior.
Abnormal Behaviour – Biological Causes
Historically biological factors are thought to be involved in causing abnormal behavior or mental disorders. Special hospitals for people suffering from mental disorders were established throughout Europe. Genetic factors are involved in anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. Many abnormal behaviors have been linked to biological causes. There are many forms of abnormal behavior for which no biological cause has been identified. The biological causes of abnormal behavior gave rise to the concept of abnormality as a mental illness. Neuroscientists and others who adopt the neurobiological model of abnormal behavior investigate mental disorders as they would investigate any physical illness that can be diagnosed, treated, and cured.
Abnormal Behaviour- Psychological Causes
The psychoanalytic perspective holds that abnormal behavior stems from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression. According to these theorists in order to resolve problems of abnormal behavior effectively, people must become aware that the root causes of their problems lie in their childhood and infancy. The roots of this psychological model can be found in ancient greek dealing with psyche or mind. These ideas took center stage in the study of abnormal behavior in the late 1800’s when Sigmund Freud challenged the assumption that psychological disorders had only physical causes.
Freud believed that children pass through stages of development in which sexual and aggressive impulses produce conflict. If conflicts are not dealt with successfully, they remain unresolved in the unconscious of the individual and bring about abnormality during later stages of life.
Abnormal Behaviour- Socio, Cultural Factors
Biological and psychological causes can go a long way toward explaining various forms of mental disorders. Socio-cultural factors influence not only what is labeled as abnormal behavior but also who displays it. Looking for causes of abnormal behavior in this socio-cultural factor means paying attention to factors such as gender, age, marital status, and physical, social, economic situations.
Some kinds of abnormal behavior are more prevalent among certain socio-cultural classes than among others. Poor economic conditions tend to be linked to a general decline in psychological functioning and social problems. Poorer people might be less likely than wealthier people to seek help. People’s abnormal behavior is shaped by the kind of family, group, society, and culture in which they live. Sociocultural factors create different roles and experiences for people who differ in age, gender, and culture.